eastern panhandle native plant society

3
May

****This document was prepared by EPNPS member Curtis Sharp, in preparation for a June 2001 EPNPS field trip on grasses which he will be leading. Our thanks to Curtis for his work on this useful and informative reference.****

Grasses that may be seen occurring in the Eastern Panhandle of WV, and their classification by tribe.

The following is:

1) A classification of grasses by tribe and

2) Within each tribe, a few common native and introduced grasses found in WV, with a little information about each.

Some of the data below is from: http://plants.usda.gov/plants. The full reference is:

USDA, NRCS. 2001. The PLANTS (Plant List of Accepted Nomenclature, Taxonomy and Symbols) Database, Version 3., Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490.

This is a good site to get lots of information on most native and introduced plants. Should you use the database to check occurrence of a plant in a state, the results will depend on whether there is a specimen of the plant in the ‘state’ herbarium. This may explain, for example, why the database says cereal rye does not occur in WV. Other odd things exist in the data, but is an excellent source on plant data in the U.S.

The classification is from:

Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc. Morgantown.

We hope to see most of the following grasses on our field trip. Of course, there are many which occur in WV not included here. The intent is to include several dominate ones representing both native and introduced. One obvious omissions will be native annual grasses.

In the process of assembling this material I have added some comments. These are shown in parenthesis, i.e. ( ).

Definition of terms used included that are not in the database material:

Temperature Regimes: Tropical – never freezes. Temperate – minimum temperature 30 degrees F to -30 degrees.

Rainfall: Humid – over 25 inches per year. Semiarid – 25 – 10 inches. Arid – less than 10 inches.

Increaser or Decreaser: A term used by range scientists that describe what happens to a plant when it is exposed to excessive grazing. The plant will increase in the stand or decrease. The terms apply to other reaction of plants in certain situations also. Can you think of some native and introduced increaser and decreasers in Jefferson County? Usually the natives decrease and the introduced plants increase. Why?

Four Horsemen: Earlier settlers who arrived in the central Great Plains referred to four dominate grasses as the ‘four horsemen’. They are switchgrass, little bluestem, big bluestem and Indianhrass, all native to WV.

You will note several native plants has ‘invasive information’ in the database about them, and some are noxious weeds according to USDA. Can a native be a ‘noxious weed’?

NOTE: All grasses have these classification characteristics:

Group: Monocot

Family: Poaceae

Growth Habit: Graminoid

If you are interested in being able to identify grasses using a classification process, getting them into tribes is an excellent first step.

Classification of Grass Tribes

(from Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Morgantown, WV, plus some adjustments from Hitchcock, A.S. 1950. Manual of Grasses of the U.S. Agr. Handb. Mics Pub. 200)

I Maydeae (Tripsaceae)

a. Spiklets imbedded in the joints of the rachis

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis

XI Bambuseae

b. Plants woody, culms perennial

b. Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c. Spikelet 1-flowered, spikelets flattened from back; pedicels jointed just below spikelet.

II Andropogoneae

d. Spiklets in pairs, one sessile, one perfect, the other stalked and staminate, or empty,or reduced to a mere stalk

III Paniceae

d. Spikelets single

c. Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets flattened from the side)

IV Oryzeae

d Glumes none; plants of wet places

Glumes present

V Phalarideae

e. Spikelet 3-flowered, uppermost floret in each spikelet perfect, the two lower staminate or sterile.&

e. Flowers 1-many-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect ones

f. Spikelets in 1-sided spikes or sessile on opposite sides of a zigzag rachis

VIII Chlorideae

g. Spikelete 1-several-flowered, in 1-sided spikes

X. Hordeae

g. Spikelete 1-several-flowered, sessile on opposite sides of zigzag axis

f. Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle VI Agrostideae

g. Spiklets 1-flowered

g. Spikelets 2-many flowered

IX Festuceae

h. Glumes lower than lower-most floret; awn, if present arising from or near the apex of the lemma

VII Aveneae

h. Glumes as long as the lower most floret; awns, if present, attached to the back of the lemma.

Native and introduced grasses found in WV, listed by Tribe and Tribe characteristics

Tribe: Maydeae (Tripsaceae)

a. Spiklets imbedded in the joints of the rachis

Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. eastern gamagrass

Symbol: TRDA3

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: Has a broad area of adaptation. It is not frequently seen for a variety of reasons. It is very desirable forage for all grazing livestock, is a poor seed producer, and likes reasonably desirable sites on which to grow. Extensive development work with this plant is underway in the East and Midwest, due to a seed production breakthrough.)

Zea mays L. corn

Symbol:

ZEMA

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: What is there to say about corn. I even thought it was a native. Don’t tell the Indians that it isn’t.)

Tribe: Andropogoneae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis; racemes type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikelet 1-flowered, spikelets flattened from back; pedicels

jointed just below spikelet.

d Spiklets in pairs, one sessile, one perfect, the other stalked and

staminate, or empty, or reduced to a mere stalk

Andropogon gerardii Vitman big bluestem

Symbol: ANGE

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

This plant grows in only in hot weather, 5-7 feet tall, turkey foot type seed head, matures seed in late August-September.

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada.

Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence Today: Dominate native grass in prairie states, one of the ‘four horsemen’. Grows in humid and semi arid regions. Occurring sporadically in WV. Wonderful plant, do we need more – but how?).

Andropogon virginicus L. var. virginicus broomsedge bluestem

Symbol:

ANVIV

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

(Occurrence today: It is widely and frequently occurring all across the humid, temperate part of the U.S. Its frequent occurrence in pastures and other treeless areas is usually due to the low phosphorous in the soil. Broomsedge tolerates this condition better than most herbaceous plants but it quickly gives way to others if phosphorous in applied. The county agent told my father “Mitchell, if you want to send those boys to college, you better apply some super phosphate to those pastures and get gid of that damn native grass. )

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.
Chinese silvergrass

Symbol:

MISI

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1996. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee (19 October 1999). Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council

Saccharum ravennae (L.) L. ravennagrass

Plant Synonyms:

Erianthus ravennae (L.) Beauv.

Symbol:

SARA3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. divergens (Hack.) Gould little bluestem

Symbol:

SCLI11

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:

None available

(Occurrence today: This plant looks very much like broomsedge, but is a far better forage plant. It too is one of the four horsemen of the great plains. It occurs in small stands in isolated places here, is consumed by livestock, very difficult to reestablish in a humid region, thus not much around.)

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Indiangrass

Symbol: SONU2

Duration: : Perennial

U.S. : Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada.

Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: This is also on of the four horsemen of the Great Plains. Of those four Indiangrass was most likely the one that occupied the open savanna type areas in the Eastern forests when the first European settlers arrived. Even today, it is the native grass most widely found here that would have the capabilities of restricting trees and shrubs from overrunning the site. If one knows what to look for it is easily spotted in the late summer and early fall. Grows about 6 feet tall, with lots of leaves.)

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Johnsongrass

Symbol:

SOHA

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

CA:

johnsongrass

C list (noxious weeds)

CO:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

DE:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

ID:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

IL:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

IN:

Johnsongrass

Noxious weed

KS:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

MD:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

MO:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

NV:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

OH:

johnsongrass

Prohibited noxious weed

OR:

Johnsongrass

“B” designated weed

PA:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

SD:

johnsongrass

Regulated non-native plant species

UT:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

VA:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

WA:

johnsongrass

Class A noxious weed

WV:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

(Occurrence today: This may be the worst crop field weed around today. It is resistant to many common herbicides used for controlling weeds in corn, produces long living rhizomes, and abundant seed which lives in the ground a long.)

Tribe: Paniceae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikelet 1-flowered, spikelets flattened from back; pedicels

jointed just below spikelet.

d Spikelets single

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. barnyardgrass

Symbol: ECCR

Duration: Annual

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information: Japanese millet , cockspur , watergrass
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

KY

Haragan, P.D. 1991. Weeds of Kentucky and adjacent states: A field guide. The University Press of Kentucky. Lexington, Kentucky. 278pp.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

WSWS

Whitson, T.D. (Ed.) et al. 1996. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 630pp.

(Occurrence now: On the one hand this is a common weed in row crops, easily controlled with herbicides, but is an excellent waterfoul food, frequently grown for a crop then flooded in the fall or winter for the birds.

Panicum anceps Michx. beaked panicgrass

Symbol:

PAAN

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now:

Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.) Gould deertongue

Symbol: DICL

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This and the plant above are similar and until recently were both in the Panicum genera. Deertongue, which is out of alphabetical order, is more robust, tolerates pH to 4.5, is commercially available, a great native plant.)

Panicum virgatum L. switchgrass

Symbol: PAVI2

Duration: Perennial.

U.S Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each invasive plant list, or click here for a composite list of Invasive Plant Species

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada.

Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence Today: Dominate native grass in prairie states, one of the ‘four horsemen’ of the region. Occurring sporadically in WV. May ‘invade’ freshwater wetlands. Lets talk ecotypes.).

Tribe: Oryzeae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes none; plants of wet places

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. rice cutgrass

Symbol: LEOR

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This plant grows in stream edges, has very rough edges, is widely distributed, and easy to find in stream edges. More open panicle than L. virginica

Leersia virginica Willd. whitegrass

Symbol: LEVI2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: Similar to above, grows more in wet wooded areas, and has tight panicle, more shade tolerant than L. oryzoides)

Tribe: Phalarideae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Spikelet 3-flowered, uppermost floret in each spikelet perfect, the

two lower staminate or sterile.

Phalaris arundinacea L. reed canarygrass

Symbol: PHAR3

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

reed canarygrass

Class C noxious weed

(Occurrence now: Very widely distributed, usually along streams because it grows well in moist sites. Big, course, vigorous plant with many current uses.)

Tribe: Chlorideae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, spike type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect

ones

f Spikelets in 1-sided spikes or sessile on opposite sides of a

zigzag rachis

g Spikelete 1-several-flowered, in 1-sided spikes

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. sideoats grama

Symbol: BOCU

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

(Occurrence today: Although this plant occurs in WV, it is not frequently seen. The grama grasses (sideoats, black, blue, etc.) are the backbone of the short grass prairie of the southern great plains (8 to 14″ rainfall). Even so, they are what range scientists call decreasers, meaning they disappears under heavy grazing, i.e. are not very aggressive. Sideoats is the most robust and common of the grama grasses, but requires the best site.)

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermudagrass

Symbol:

CYDA

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information: This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

CA:

bermudagrass

C list (noxious weeds)

UT

bermudagrass

Noxious weed

(Occurrence now: It is now in all states except the most northern. Once the worst weed in the cotton fields, known as wire grass, it is now widely used an a turf and forage plant. Many cultivars.)

Tribe: Hordeae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, spike type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect ones

f Spikelets in 1-sided spikes or sessile on opposite sides of a

zigzag rachis

g Spikelete 1-several-flowered, sessile on opposite sides

of zigzag axis

Elymus canadensis L. Canada wildrye

Symbol: ELCA4

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Elymus repens (L.) quackgrass (Previously known as Agropyron repens)

Symbol: ELRE4

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:

One or more synonyms of this plant are listed as noxious weeds by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by various common names in different places. Listed synonyms are italicized and indented below.

U.S. quackgrass

Restricted noxious weed

AZ:

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B.D. Jackson

quackgrass

B list (noxious weeds)

CA

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B.D. Jackson

quackgrass

Noxious weed

CO

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B.D. Jackson

quackgrass

Noxious weed

HI

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Primary noxious weed

IOWA

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Noxious weed

KANSAS

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Secondary noxious weed

MN

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Injurious weed

NV

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

“B” designated weed

OR

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Noxious weed

WY

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Noxious weed

(Occurrence Today: Before the use of herbicides this was the most invasive weed into cultivated fields in the humid, temperate part of the U.S. It is still in most unshaded waste places, pastures, gardens, etc. Even my father, a God fearing man, would comment after digging it out of the corn all day, “That’s one creation we could have done without”. What’s wrong with this statement? )

Elymus virginicus L. Virginia wildrye

Symbol:

ELVI3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: These two plants are shade tolerant, perennial grasses that are being used in restoration projects in recent years as a result of the ‘native’ interest. They are similar in appearance, with the Canada wildrye having a much longer (10 cm) seed head.)

Lolium perenne L. perennial ryegrass

Symbol: LOPE

Duration: Annual, Biennial ,Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: Very widely used introduced grass – not listed a an invasive species however, maybe due to its short life. The multiple duration’s above results from great variance in cold tolerance of the species and the cross pollination between it and the following grass.)

Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot Italian ryegrass

Symbol:

LOPEM2

Duration:

Annual , Biennial, Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot Italian ryegrass, annual ryegrass
Lolium multiflorum Lam. Italian ryegrass, annual ryegrass
This plant and one or more synonyms are listed as invasive weeds by the authoritative sources noted below. Synonyms are italicized and indented. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

CAEPPC

California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. Exotic pest plant list (19 October 1999). California Exotic Pest Plant Council.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

WSWS

Whitson, T.D. (Ed.) et al. 1996. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 630pp.

(Occurrence now: Like the one above, extensively used for temporary revegetation because it grows fast and the seed is very cheap.)

Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire tall fescue (previously Festuca arundinacea)

Symbol: LOAR10

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
One or more synonyms of this plant are listed as invasive weeds by the authoritative sources noted below. These synonyms are italicized and indented. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

CEPPC

California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999.

(Occurrence today: Is one of the most frequently occurring grasses across to U.S, present in all states, widely planted today for lawns, restoration purposes, forage, etc., Is a moderately aggressive invader. Why it is so widely used?)

Secale cereale L. cereal rye

Symbol:

SECE

Duration:

Annual
Biennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

WA:

cereal rye

Class C noxious weed

(Occurrence today: This is the only common cereal included in this list. This is because it can be an invasive plant, creating a problem in fields of hybrid wheat or barley, which degrades the quality f the seed. Cereal rye is our best and most widely used winter cover crop, however. Oddly, it is not shown as occurring in WV.)

Tribe: Agrostideae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect

ones

f Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle

g Spiklets 1-flowered

Agrostis gigantea Roth redtop

Symbol: AGGI2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

(No information is provided in the PLANTS database about the invasive character of this plant, yet it occurs in all states except HI, and dominates many non shaded moist areas in the humid, temperate parts of the country. Although it spreads by rhizomes, t is not as aggressive as quackgrass. )

Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass

Symbol:

AGCA5

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

No information is provided in the PLANTS database about the invasive character of this plant. It occurs in about half of the states, is far less aggressive that A. gigantea. Used almost exclusively on golf courses.)

Agrostis stolonifera L. creeping bentgrass

Symbol: Invasive Plant Information:

Symbol: AGST2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

(Occurrence today: Not widely scattered, except along streams and other moist areas. Used on golf courses. Similar to Agrostis capillaris. How come this native is invasive ant the last two introduced ones are not?)

Aristida oligantha Michx. prairie threeawn

Symbol:

AROL

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

(Occurrence today: This is an perennial example of a large genera of grasses widely scattered in the U.S., called threeawn. This one is a perennial, occurring in the spring and early summer, and as with most threeawns, on dry, hot , sterile sites. )

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. var. canadensis
bluejoint

Symbol:

CACAC10

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: All states except humid southeast. Occurs only in very moist places. Nice plant, strongly rhizomatous, poor seed producer, of little significance.)

Phleum pratense L. timothy

Symbol:

PHPR3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

(Occurrence today: Timothy is another of the northern European species to come early on to Amarica. It is widely used in the northern parts of the temperate region. It seems odd to talk of it as a weed, since it is very non-aggressive.)

Tribe: Festuceae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect ones

f Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle

g Spikelets 2-many flowered

h Glumes lower than lower-most floret; awn, if present,

arising from or near the apex of the lemma

Bromus arvensis L. field brome

Symbol:

BRAR5

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: A vigorous winter annual, it was planted as a cover crop following corn and other row crops to provide winter cover. For this it was excellent, but appeared to have weedy characteristics, and is no longer used to any great extent.)

Bromus inermis Leyss. smooth brome

Symbol:

BRIN2

Duration

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native and Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

SEEPPC

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1996. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee, 19 October 1999). Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council.

WI

Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.

(Occurrence today: This is an interesting introduced forage grass. It is still used today for this purpose, and many cultivars exist of it. When it was planted on the deep, rich soils of the central prairie it exploded, went wild. Typically, as human kind overgrazed rangeland smooth brome and Kentucky bluegrass replaced the native species (the four horsemen), i.e. they were increasers. This is an example where the invader produced more products the land owner wanted than the natives – pounds of beef, as least under the excessive grazing. It also invaded the roadbanks, etc. providing excellent erosion control. Reestablishing native grasses in this environment, and keeping them there under grazing is a challenge. Is that good or bad?)

Bromus tectorum L. cheatgrass

Symbol:

BRTE

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the USDA, and some states, and may be known by one or more common names in different places, such as downy brome, softchess.

(Occurrence now: All states – millions of acres in the Great Basin states of the west Rates up there with star thistle, and leafy spurge. Is not used by livestock and prohibits re-invasion of desirable grasses. It is common in WV, and can be found in early spring on dry, sun baked bare ground. It invaded the west because of ovegrazing.)

Dactylis glomerata L. orchardgrass

Symbol: DAGL

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

B&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

(Occurrence now: This is a valuable forage grass, distributed in all of the northern 2/3 of U.S. It is interesting to note that Cornell has put on the commercial marker several cultivars of orchardgrass, yet it is considered a weed by the same institution.

Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass

Symbol:

ERCU2

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This plant is used only for restoration projects. It can be seen on road bank projects within WV. It grows rapidly in the summer, has a strong seedling, and is used as a nurse crop for longer liver herbaceous species in the mix.)

Festuca rubra L. red fescue

Symbol: FERU2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: Another introduced species primarily for turf use. Produces tough sod, good shade tolerance, widely used in the state.)

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. common reed

Symbol: PHAU7

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:

One or more synonyms of this plant are listed as noxious weeds by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by various common names in different places. Listed synonyms are italicized and indented below.

SC:

Common reed

Noxious weed

(Occurrence today: World wide, this plant ranks as one of our worst weeds. It occupies both salt and fresh water wetlands when given an opportunity. Considering its world wide distribution, it may be native to most if not all continents.)

Poa annua L. annual bluegrass

Symbol: POAN

Duration: Annual ,Biennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced,

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

WSWS

Whitson, T.D. (Ed.) et al. 1996. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 630pp.

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence today: This little winter annual seems insignificant, but becomes a pest in seed fields of Kentucky bluegrass. However, because it germinates frequently in the fall, starts growing very early in the spring (late winter here) it does protect some open crop fields from erosion.)

Poa compressa L. Canada bluegrass

Symbol: POCO

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

WI

Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.

(Occurrence today: The above information suggests this plant is introduced, from Canada I assume. Many of you did not know plants respected political boundaries. This plant seems at home all across the northern parts of the U.S. Similar in appearance to Kentucky Bluegrass, bur less robust, more prostrate, and initiates growth earlier in the spring. It to is a seed contamination problem in Kentucky blue fields.)

Poa pratensis L. Kentucky bluegrass

Symbol: POPR

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native and Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each invasive plant list, or click here for a composite list of Invasive Plant Species

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

WI

Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence today: If we have a lawn we mostly likely have this plant. Moderately aggressive in most settings, very aggressive in others. Is this a good or bad thing? And is it really a native or not?)

Tridens flavus (L.) A.S. Hitchc. purpletop tridens

Symbol:

TRFL2

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:

(None provided by database. This plant can be observed on nearly every acre of pasture in August – September in Jefferson county, but it sure was not planted there. Is it invasive? By the way, it is a wonderful plant.)

Tribe: Aveneae (tall oatgrass, poverty grass,

a Spiklets not imbedded in the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual.

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-many-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect

ones

f Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle

g Spikelets 2-many flowered

h Glumes as long as the lower most floret; awns, if present,

attached to the back of the lemma.

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J.& K. Presl tall oatgrass

Symbol:

AREL3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

No information is provided in the PLANTS database about the invasive character of this plant. It occurs in most states but is not aggressive. Has excellent forage qualities, but a low forage and sees producer.)

Aristida longispica Poir. slimspike threeawn

Symbol: ARLO2

Duration: Annual

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

None provided.

(Occurrence today: This is an example of a large genera of grasses widely scattered in the U.S., called threeawn. This one is an annual, occurring in the spring, and as with most threeawns, on dry, hot , sterile sites. )

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes poverty oatgrass

Symbol:

DASP2

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This native is of little consequence, except it is just about everywhere. I occurs on low fertility, low moisture soils in much of WV.)

Category : local flora

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