eastern panhandle native plant society
6
May

WVNPS, 20th anniversary walk, Kanawha State Forest south of Charleston
April 13, 2002
List compiled by Sally Anderson, from her field notes on this trip.

Anemone minima?, dwarf anemone, in bloom
Aplectrum hyemale, Puttyroot or Adam-and-Eve, leaves
Arisaema triphyllum, Jack-in-the-pulpit
Asarum canadense, Wild ginger
Botrychium sp., Gape fern
Botrychium virginianum, Rattlesnake fern
Carex torta in bloom, in the stream
Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue cohosh
Chimaphila maculata, Spotted wintergreen
Cimicifuga racemosa, Black cohosh
Claytonia caroliniana, Carolina spring beauty in bloom
Clintonia sp., leaves
Cynoglossum virginianum, Wild comfrey
Dentaria diphylla, Two leafed toothwort in bloom
Dentaria heterophylla, Slender toothwort in bloom
Dryopteris marginalis, Marginal shield fern
Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops, parasitic on Beech roots
Epigaea repens, Trailing arbutus in bloom
Erigeron sp., Fleabane
Euonymus americana, Hearts-a-burstin or Strawberry bush
Galliumsp., Bedstraw
Gaultheria procumbens, Teaberry/Wintergreen, a few berries
Geranium maculatum, Wild geranium in bloom
Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake orchid leaves
Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp leaved hepatica
Hieracum sp., Hawkweed
Houstonia caerula, Bluets in bloom
Hydrangea arborescens, Wild hydrangea
Impatiens sp., Jewel weed
Iris cristata, Dwarf crested iris
Luzula sp., Woodrush in bloom
Meehania cordata, Meehania
Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort or Wood betony
Phlox stolonifera, Trailing phlox in bloom
Podophyllum peltatum, May apple
Polemonium reptans, Valerian
Polygonatum pubescens, Solomon’s seal
Polygonatum biflorum, Solomon’s seal
Polypodium virginianum, Common polypody
Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas fern
Potentilla sp., Cinqufoil
Pyrularia pubera, Buffalonut or Oilnut, parasitic shrub
Salvia lyrata, Lyre leaved sage
Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot in seed
Sedum ternatum, Stonecrop
Senecio aureus, Golden ragwort
Silene virginica, Fire pink
Stellaria pubera, Star chickweed
Thalictrum thalictroides, Rue anemone
Tiarella cordifolia, Foamflower in bloom
Tipularia discolor, Cranefly orchid leaves
Trillium erectum, Wake robin in bloom, several colors occur, ovary always purple
Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate bellwort
Vicia caroliniana, Carolina or Wood vetch
Viola spp., yellow (smooth and downy), common blue, long-spurred, sweet white and northern white violets in bloom
Trees not listed, of interest were tamaracks (Larix lacinata), which were probably planted.

WVNPS, 20th anniversary walk, Kanawha State Forest south of Charleston
April 13, 2002

Anemone minima, dwarf anemone, in bloom
Aplectrum hyemale, Puttyroot or Adam-and-Eve, leaves
Arisaema triphyllum, Jack-in-the-pulpit
Asarum canadense, Wild ginger
Botrychium sp., Gape fern
Botrychium virginianum, Rattlesnake fern
Carex torta in bloom, in the stream
Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue cohosh
Chimaphila maculata, Spotted wintergreen
Cimicifuga racemosa, Black cohosh
Claytonia caroliniana, Carolina spring beauty in bloom
Clintonia sp., leaves
Cynoglossum virginianum, Wild comfrey
Dentaria diphylla, Two leafed toothwort in bloom
Dentaria heterophylla, Slender toothwort in bloom
Dryopteris marginalis, Marginal shield fern
Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops, parasitic on Beech roots
Epigaea repens, Trailing arbutus in bloom
Erigeron sp., Fleabane
Euonymus americana, Hearts-a-burstin, Burstin-Heart or Strawberry bush
Galliumsp., Bedstraw
Gaultheria procumbens, Teaberry/Wintergreen, a few berries
Geranium maculatum, Wild geranium in bloom
Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake orchid leaves
Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp leaved hepatica
Hieracum sp., Hawkweed
Houstonia caerula, Bluets in bloom
Hydrangea arborescens, Wild hydrangea
Impatiens sp., Jewel weed
Iris cristata, Dwarf crested iris
Luzula sp., Woodrush in bloom
Meehania cordata, Meehania
Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort or Wood betony
Phlox stolonifera, Trailing phlox in bloom
Podophyllum peltatum, May apple
Polemonium reptans, Valerian
Polygonatum pubescens, Solomon’s seal
Polygonatum biflorum, Solomon’s seal
Polypodium virginianum, Common polypody
Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas fern
Potentilla sp., Cinqufoil
Pyrularia pubera, Buffalonut or Oilnut, parasitic shrub
Salvia lyrata, Lyre leaved sage
Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot in seed
Sedum ternatum, Stonecrop
Senecio aureus, Golden ragwort
Silene virginica, Fire pink
Stellaria pubera, Star chickweed
Thalictrum thalictroides, Rue anemone
Tiarella cordifolia, Foamflower in bloom
Tipularia discolor, Cranefly orchid leaves
Trillium erectum, Wake robin in bloom, several colors occur, ovary
always purple
Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate bellwort
Vicia caroliniana, Carolina or Wood vetch
Viola spp., yellow (smooth and downy), common blue, long-spurred, sweet
white and northern white violets in bloom
Trees not listed, of interest were tamaracks (Larix lacinata), which were probably planted.

Category : field notes
5
May

Eastern Panhandle Native Plant Society

August Bulletin

Upcoming EPNPS Events

Event: Field trip through the Paw Paw tunnel along the tow path

Date: Saturday, August 23.

Time: 1:00 p.m.

Description: We hope to see trailing arbutus, iris, ferns, and more.

Leader: Sally Anderson

Directions: Take Route 9 west from Martinsburg and bear right where the road connects to Route 29 (it will still be Route 9). Go through the town of Paw Paw, cross the Potomac, and watch for the parking lot for Paw Paw Tunnel on the right. Meet in the picnic area.

Event: Field trip to Snavely Ford and Ferry Hill (near Antietam)

Date: Saturday, Sept. 27

Time: 10:00-12:00, Ferry Hill; 1:00-3:00, Snavely Ford

Leader: Joe Metzger

Description: Look for composites and other fall flowers.
Directions to Ferry Hill:
— From Shepherdstown: Take the bridge across the Potomac. Go up the hill on MD 34 about .1 mile and turn left into the driveway for Ferry Hill (It has a big iron gate.). Park in Visitor’s Lot near the mansion.
–From the east and south: Get to Frederick. Take I-70 west one or two exits and get off at US 40 alt (Braddock Heights / Middletown exit). Turn left onto US 40 alt and drive through Middletown to Boonsboro. In Boonsboro, turn left onto MD 34. Follow MD 34 through Sharpsburg. Just before the bridge across the Potomac, turn right into the driveway for Ferry Hill (It has a big iron gate.). Park in Visitor’s Lot near the mansion.
Directions to Snavely’s Ford Trail:
–From Shepherdstown: Take MD 34 through Sharpsburg. At the east end (top of the hill by the cemetery entrance) go about .5 mile and turn right into the battlefield. (If you get to Antietam Creek you’ve gone too far.) Continue about .5 mile to the end and turn left. Go about .5 mile and park in the loop at the top of the hill.
–From the east and south: Get to Frederick. Take I-70 west one or two exits and get off at US 40 alt (Braddock Heights / Middletown exit). Turn left onto US 40 alt and drive through Middletown to Boonsboro. In Boonsboro, turn left onto MD 34. Follow MD 34 toward Sharpsburg. Before you get there, you cross Antietam Creek. About .5 mile later, turn left into the battlefield. (If you get to the cemetery entrance at the top of the hill you’ve gone too far.) Continue about .5 mile to the end and turn left. Go about .5 mile and park in the loop at the top of the hill.
Trail map (plus link to road map?) available at www.potomacaudubon.org
Contact information for field trip leader:
Joe Metzger (410) 775-7737 or jmetzger50@hotmail.com (preferred)

–Invasive removal at Yankauer–Sept. 9

EPNPS will once again participate in the annual United Way Day of Caring by helping to clear invasives at the Yankauer Nature Preserve. The event will be held Tuesday Sept. 9, and as always we?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢ll meet in advance for breakfast at a location yet to be specified. If you can help, please contact Lynn Wagner at lwagner@intrepid.net. United Way needs a head count in advance to plan for the breakfast, lunch, and T-shirts that are provided to volunteers. So please let me know ASAP if you plan to participate.

–TriState Native Plant Conference–agenda below

Event: The West Virginia, Maryland, and Virginia native plant societies are sponsoring a joint two-day conference October 4-5, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, WV. This exciting event will bring these three native plant societies together to explore the native plant communites and natural areas that we have in common. Please join us for a weekend of speakers, field trips, workshops and exhibits.

Registration fee: WVNPS/EPNPS/MNPS/VNPS Members: $45.00 per person (+$16.50 per person for Saturday Social reservations); Non-member Fee: $55.00 per person (+$16.50 per person for Saturday Social reservations). The fee includes lunch on Saturday.

Checks should be made payable to the Maryland Native Plant Society and mailed to:

Meghan Tice; P.O. Box 25; Bowie, MD 20719

Volunteer needs for the conference:

Volunteers are need to help staff the registration table on Saturday. If you know of someone who would be interested, contact Lynn Wagner at lwagner@intrepid.net.

Also, there will be a silent auction to benefit the sponsoring native plant groups. If you have something to donate to the auction (a book, native plant, field guide) please contact Lynn Wagner.

Preliminary Agenda:

Friday, October 3:

3:00-5:00 pm Field Trip ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Snavely?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢s Ford Trail, Antietam National Battlefield, Washington County, MD ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Joe Metzger

8:00 pm Ghost Tour ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Harper?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢s Ferry, WV ($3)

Saturday, October 4:

7:30-8:30 am Breakfast/Coffee

8:30-9:00 am Introduction

9:00-9:45 am Avery Drake ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Overview of the Geology of the Blue Ridge Province

10:00-10:30 am Coffee Break/Poster Session/Book Sale

10:35-11:20 am Gary Fleming ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Diverse Natural Communities and Flora of the Blue Ridge

11:30-11:40 am Coffee Break

11:45 am-12:30 pm Cris Fleming ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Rare Plants of the Harpers Ferry Area

12:30-1:45 pm Lunch Break (lunches provided)/Book Sale/Poster Session

1:00-1:45 pm Maryland Native Plant Society Annual Business Meeting

1:45-2:00 pm Assemble for afternoon Field Trips

2:00-5:00 pm Saturday Field Trips

(Times TBD) Fern ID Workshop ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Conference Facility ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Larry Stritch, Instructor

6:30-10:00 pm Saturday Evening Social ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Hilltop House Hotel, Harpers Ferry, WV ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Buffet served from 7:00-9:00 ($16.50/person)

Sunday, October 5:

7:30-8:45 am Breakfast/Coffee

9:00-9:45 am Speaker (TBA) ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Threats to our Native Forest (proposed topic)

10:00-11:00 am Panel Discussion ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú The Role of Native Plant Societies in Conservation with Stan Shetler, Rod Simmons, and Leslie Sauer (TBD)

11:00 am Book Sale with Book Signings by Cris Fleming/Nicky Staunton (Finding Wildflowers in the Washington-Baltimore Area) and Leslie Sauer (The Once and Future Forest: A Guide to Forest Restoration Strategies)

10:00 am-3:00 pm Field Trip ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Yankauer Preserve (very near conference site) ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Joe Metzger

1:00 pm Field Trip ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Shanondale Wildlife Management Area, outside of Charles Town, WV ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Larry Stritch

Time TBD Field Trip ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú G Richard Thompson Wildlife Management Area, Appalachian Trail, Fauquier County, VA ?¢‚Ǩ‚Äú Bob Pickett

Upcoming WVNPS Events

Event: WVNPS Annual Meeting/Field Trip

Date: September 13-14

Location: Elkins, WV

Description: WVNPS will hold its annual meeting at the Day?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢s Inn in Elkins, WV

Elkins area. Join us for a weekend of field trips in this richly diverse area!

— PJ Harmon and Brian McDonald will each lead a field trip beginning at 9:30 Saturday morning, 9/13. Meet at the Day’s Inn lobby at 9:30 to choose one of the two groups. One field trip will be a longer hike, the other will be a shorter, “drive, park, & and look” outing.

— The annual meeting will start at 5:00 p.m. on 9/13 in Club Room B at the Day?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢s Inn.

The featured speaker at the meeting will be Matt Keller from the Highlands Conservancy Wilderness campaign.

Accomodations: There is no block of rooms reserved at the Days Inn, but WVNPS will get a special rate of $54 single/$58.50 double. Don?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢t forget to say you are with the group to get that rate.

Directions: From Buckhannon, take Rt. 33 East to toward Elkins. Near Elkins, take the Old Rt. 33 exit. Pass Pizza Hut, Shoney’s, & Long John Silver; the Day’s Inn will be on your left a short distance further.

Meals: Attendees will be responsible for arranging their own meals.

Special Note: **We will be electing officers for 2004 at this meeting. If you are interested in serving on the WVNPS board, or would like to nominate someone for a position, please contact Steve Mace at sdmace@citynet.net. Please make sure before submitting a nomination that the person you name is willing to serve.**

Other Events

–Native Wonders and Exotic Blunders
August 22, ThorpeWood, 6-8 pm. Jim Gallion will lead a guided tour around ThorpeWood and the surrounding forest, providing a “crash course” in
native and exotic invasive plants. Free, but registration is required. Call 301.271.2823 before August 15th. http://www.thorpewood.org/main.html

–Invasive management workshop

September 10, 2003, in Wilkes Barre, PA, offered by Penn State Cooperative Extension, in conjunction with Penn State School of Forest Resources, USDA Forest Service, Northeast Area, PA DCNR Bureau of Forestry, PA Urban & Community Forestry Council, Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, and PENNDOT Roadside Vegetation Management Project.
The workshop will focus on the the tools and techniques to manage invasive species, with both indoor and field content.
Use the link below to download the brochure, which gives the agenda, location, directions, etc.
http://www.personal.psu.edu/aeg2/shared/ma-eppc/Wkshp_091003.pdf

West Virginia News

–Comments sought on Mountaintop Removal EIS report

-The Bush administration?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢s Environmental Impact Study on mountaintop removal is out and has outraged many of the state?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢s environmental groups, which are asking citizens to comment on the report (see below for details). Please send comments to:

Mr. John Forren, US EPA
1650 Arch Street
Philadelphia, PA 19130

The deadline for comments is August 29, 2003.
-The EIS report is available online in several files at http://www.epa.gov/region03/mtntop/eis.htm. Copies of the study are available on CD-ROM and can be requested by calling EPA at (800) 228-8711.

-Here?¢‚Ǩ‚Ñ¢s an article on the study:

http://www.dailymail.com/news/News/200307251/

-From Coal River Mountain Watch, Forwarded by: From Julian Martin, Outreach Chairman West Virginia Highlands Conservancy www.wvhighlands.org:
“Sadly, the Department of the Interior has chosen to ignore the scientific studies on mountaintop removal and has instead drawn conclusions dictated by the Bush political agenda. Considering what we now know about the administration’s dismal record on the environment, this comes as no surprise. We would never have agreed to settle the case if we had known the extent to which the administration will go to have politics trump scientific reality,” said Cindy Rank, mining chairwoman for the West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, the group which filed the lawsuit that brought about the EIS.
The EIS confirms the empirical data that led to the common sense conclusions ofcoalfield residents and environmental groups-mountaintop removal / valley fill coal mining is irreversibly and substantially harming the forests and streams of Southern West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky. Throughout central Appalachia, some of the most productive and diverse temperate hardwood forests in the world have been destroyed when coal companies blast off hundreds of feet of mountaintops to get to thin seams of coal. In
most circumstances, the former lush forests will remain degraded as grassy, unproductive scrub land for at least several centuries. These unproductive grasslands cover nearly 20% of some southern West Virginia counties. Millions of tons of rubble from the former mountains are pushed into the adjacent valleys. Coal companies have already buried hundreds of miles of Appalachian streams, destroying not only the streams themselves, but creating disastrous impacts to downstream waterways and towns. As residents point out, mountaintop removal is also devastating the culture and communities of the region.In the EIS draft, the Bush administration does not recommend curbing the environmental harm caused by mountaintop removal, but asks the agencies that are supposed to be regulating coal mining to streamline the way they work together.
“You can practically smell the corruption wafting off this document. Bush and his coal industry friends weren’t happy with the scientific truth, so they delayed the study for months, trying to figure out how to put a positive spin on the worst intentional environmental disaster in the nation. Perhaps they were attempting to tweak the studies just like their Enron pals cooked the books,” said Vivian Stockman, with the Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition, a Huntington, W.Va.-based group calling for an end to mountaintop removal.One of the coordinators of the EIS, J. Steven Griles, Deputy Secretary of the Department of Interior, is a former coal industry lobbyist with ties to
mountaintop removal companies. The DOI’s Inspector General is currently investigating Griles for conflicts of interest. The PBS television program, Now with Bill Moyers, exposed Griles on Friday May 30.
“It’s outrageous that a man so obviously still in bed with the coal industry could be allowed to leave his grubby fingerprints all over this document,” said Judy Bonds, a community organizer for the Whitesville, W. Va.-based Coal River Mountain Watch. Bonds won the 2003 Goldman Environmental Prize for North America for her efforts to ban mountaintop removal. “I am shocked that it took the agencies this long to try to put their spin on the truth, and they still couldn’t do it. They still couldn’t say that mountaintop removal isn’t permanently scarring the land,” Bonds added. “The scientific studies and the economic data included in the EIS clearly show that there is no reason for the valley fills should be so large and so damaging to the environment,”” said Joe Lovett, Executive Director of the Appalachian Center for the Economy and the Environment. “It is remarkable that, based on these data, the Bush administration is proposing to loosen the reins on permitting, not tighten them, as they should.”
“The Bush administration is determined to remove any obstacles to maximizing
profit for an outlaw coal industry,” said Teri Blanton of the citizens group Kentuckians For The Commonwealth, a group which also filed a major mountaintop removal lawsuit. “It doesn’t matter to him if mountains, water, communities or lives are destroyed in the process. This EIS is further proof of that.”
According to the Center for Responsive Politics, www.opensecrets.org, during the 2000 election cycle, Bush was the top recipient of all campaign contributions from the coal industry. Out of every dollar the coal industry contributed to political campaigns for 2000, 88 cents went to Republican candidates.
“The Bush administration hopes we will buy into the EIS. Well, we taxpayers were forced to pay millions for this study, but we don’t buy its excuses and rationalizations for the destruction of our mountains and our heritage. After all, one of the studies showed that limiting valley fills down to 35 acres would only add 50 cents per ton to the price of coal. Yet, the Bush administration is dismissing the science and endangering our futures in order to reward its political cronies,” said Janet Fout, a coordinator with the People’s Election Reform Coalition of West Virginia.
Suggestions From Coal River Mountain Watch—Mountaintop Removal destroys streams, contaminates drinking water, causes flooding, makes moonscapes out of the beautiful Appalachian Mountains- some of the world’s oldest mountains, causes blasting damage to residents homes, air pollution to residents, destroys hardwood forests and wildlife habitats, destroys Appalachian culture and heritage, defies the Executive Order regarding Environmental Justice for low income people, destroys jobs and is environmentally insane.
Mountaintop Removal should be stopped NOW! The recomendations in the EIS
Statement are a sham in that they ignore the scientific evidence and recommend
speeding up the process in permitting mountain top removal.
You can comment even if you live outside of West Virgina, as a matter of fact the more comments from outside of West Virginia–the better.
Please keep a copy of your comments–We are gathering comments so that the
EPA can’t say they didn’t get any. So if you can, please send a copy to Coal
River Mountain Watch. crmw@charter.net

–Lawmaker proposes leasing state parks.
Deanna Wrenn
Daily Mail Capitol reporter
Tuesday July 22, 2003; 10:00 AM Charleston Daily Mail
When most people think of West Virginia’s state parks, they envision tree-covered mountains, flowing streams and beautiful vistas. Not many people think of how much it costs to run the state’s parks, which lose more than $11 million a year.
This year, as the state struggles to fill a projected $120 million budget gap, park finances might come into the spotlight.
Senate Finance Chairman Walt Helmick recently proposed looking into leasing some of the state parks to private entities to help state parks turn a profit.
“We’re losing money on (almost) every park,” Helmick, D-Pocahontas, said. “The budgetary crunch demands that we look at all our operations.”
But park officials say the system is in good shape, despite the annual red ink.
Division of Natural Resources Director Ed Hamrick said West Virginia’s parks always rank either first or second in the nation among states that don’t charge entry fees, and bring West Virginia more than $100 million in economic impact each year.
Hamrick points to the 7.5 million park visitors a year — with almost 3 million coming from out of state — as a positive reflection of the health of state parks. He says cabin and lodge rates average about 60 percent occupancy over the year, which is better
than most southeast states and around the national average.
“We believe we’re doing a pretty good job,” Hamrick said. “We’re always striving to be self-sufficient.”
The problem, at least in the eyes of some legislators, is that no matter how hard the parks try to increase attendance or beef up revenues, the parks aren’t self-sufficient.
Since 2000, the park system has averaged a loss of $11.6 million a year.
Ideas to privatize state parks have popped up before, and some say this year’s $120 million state budget problem might prompt another look at the option.
Helmick says private companies would jump at the chance to take over
some state parks.
“Some of these parks have tremendous assets,” Helmick said. “They’re not built to lose money.”
Park officials say the parks weren’t made to make money, either.
“To say that they lose money and that the private sector can do a better job is just not true,” said Doug Baker, business manager of state parks. “We don’t have the facilities that a private-sector company is going to come in and make money on unless they pick and choose.”
Private companies would have to take over the entire park — not just the moneymaking lodges — to make privatization work, Baker said. Otherwise, the state would be leasing out its most valuable commodities while still paying to maintain surrounding
lands.
Besides, Baker says, state parks are a resource for West Virginians, not a source of revenue.
“It’s a public service — something that government gives back to the citizens of this state,” Baker said. “($11 million) is a small price to pay to have these facilities.”
Some states charge entrance fees for all state parks, but West Virginia
doesn’t.
Charging fees would bring in more revenue, but Helmick says that would equate to a form of tax, and he doesn’t want to do that.
“The bottom line is somebody’s going to have to pay for it,” Helmick said.
Helmick doesn’t want it to be the state or the taxpayers, and that means involving private investors.
The state could look into the idea of privatization in upcoming months,
as officials work on the state budget.
“We cannot afford to do business as usual,” Helmick said.

Native Plant Conservation Campaign News

–August Report from NPCC on the Interior Dept. Appropriations

http://www.wvnps.org/NPCCAug03report.html

Other News

–More than 8,000 tree species threatened with extinction

One in Ten Tree Species at Risk of Extinction
(OneWorld.net) – United Kingdom, August 4, 2003 — More than 8,000 tree species, 10 percent of the world’s total, are threatened with extinction, and the situation has grown worse over the past five years, according to a new report sponsored by the UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). “Towards a Global Tree Conservation Atlas,” published this week, shows that 976 tree species are in a critical situation, and very few of these endangered trees are being conserved in the wild.

Category : field trips and events
3
May

****This document was prepared by EPNPS member Curtis Sharp, in preparation for a June 2001 EPNPS field trip on grasses which he will be leading. Our thanks to Curtis for his work on this useful and informative reference.****

Grasses that may be seen occurring in the Eastern Panhandle of WV, and their classification by tribe.

The following is:

1) A classification of grasses by tribe and

2) Within each tribe, a few common native and introduced grasses found in WV, with a little information about each.

Some of the data below is from: http://plants.usda.gov/plants. The full reference is:

USDA, NRCS. 2001. The PLANTS (Plant List of Accepted Nomenclature, Taxonomy and Symbols) Database, Version 3., Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490.

This is a good site to get lots of information on most native and introduced plants. Should you use the database to check occurrence of a plant in a state, the results will depend on whether there is a specimen of the plant in the ‘state’ herbarium. This may explain, for example, why the database says cereal rye does not occur in WV. Other odd things exist in the data, but is an excellent source on plant data in the U.S.

The classification is from:

Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Inc. Morgantown.

We hope to see most of the following grasses on our field trip. Of course, there are many which occur in WV not included here. The intent is to include several dominate ones representing both native and introduced. One obvious omissions will be native annual grasses.

In the process of assembling this material I have added some comments. These are shown in parenthesis, i.e. ( ).

Definition of terms used included that are not in the database material:

Temperature Regimes: Tropical – never freezes. Temperate – minimum temperature 30 degrees F to -30 degrees.

Rainfall: Humid – over 25 inches per year. Semiarid – 25 – 10 inches. Arid – less than 10 inches.

Increaser or Decreaser: A term used by range scientists that describe what happens to a plant when it is exposed to excessive grazing. The plant will increase in the stand or decrease. The terms apply to other reaction of plants in certain situations also. Can you think of some native and introduced increaser and decreasers in Jefferson County? Usually the natives decrease and the introduced plants increase. Why?

Four Horsemen: Earlier settlers who arrived in the central Great Plains referred to four dominate grasses as the ‘four horsemen’. They are switchgrass, little bluestem, big bluestem and Indianhrass, all native to WV.

You will note several native plants has ‘invasive information’ in the database about them, and some are noxious weeds according to USDA. Can a native be a ‘noxious weed’?

NOTE: All grasses have these classification characteristics:

Group: Monocot

Family: Poaceae

Growth Habit: Graminoid

If you are interested in being able to identify grasses using a classification process, getting them into tribes is an excellent first step.

Classification of Grass Tribes

(from Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. Seneca Books, Morgantown, WV, plus some adjustments from Hitchcock, A.S. 1950. Manual of Grasses of the U.S. Agr. Handb. Mics Pub. 200)

I Maydeae (Tripsaceae)

a. Spiklets imbedded in the joints of the rachis

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis

XI Bambuseae

b. Plants woody, culms perennial

b. Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c. Spikelet 1-flowered, spikelets flattened from back; pedicels jointed just below spikelet.

II Andropogoneae

d. Spiklets in pairs, one sessile, one perfect, the other stalked and staminate, or empty,or reduced to a mere stalk

III Paniceae

d. Spikelets single

c. Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets flattened from the side)

IV Oryzeae

d Glumes none; plants of wet places

Glumes present

V Phalarideae

e. Spikelet 3-flowered, uppermost floret in each spikelet perfect, the two lower staminate or sterile.&

e. Flowers 1-many-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect ones

f. Spikelets in 1-sided spikes or sessile on opposite sides of a zigzag rachis

VIII Chlorideae

g. Spikelete 1-several-flowered, in 1-sided spikes

X. Hordeae

g. Spikelete 1-several-flowered, sessile on opposite sides of zigzag axis

f. Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle VI Agrostideae

g. Spiklets 1-flowered

g. Spikelets 2-many flowered

IX Festuceae

h. Glumes lower than lower-most floret; awn, if present arising from or near the apex of the lemma

VII Aveneae

h. Glumes as long as the lower most floret; awns, if present, attached to the back of the lemma.

Native and introduced grasses found in WV, listed by Tribe and Tribe characteristics

Tribe: Maydeae (Tripsaceae)

a. Spiklets imbedded in the joints of the rachis

Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. eastern gamagrass

Symbol: TRDA3

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: Has a broad area of adaptation. It is not frequently seen for a variety of reasons. It is very desirable forage for all grazing livestock, is a poor seed producer, and likes reasonably desirable sites on which to grow. Extensive development work with this plant is underway in the East and Midwest, due to a seed production breakthrough.)

Zea mays L. corn

Symbol:

ZEMA

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: What is there to say about corn. I even thought it was a native. Don’t tell the Indians that it isn’t.)

Tribe: Andropogoneae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis; racemes type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikelet 1-flowered, spikelets flattened from back; pedicels

jointed just below spikelet.

d Spiklets in pairs, one sessile, one perfect, the other stalked and

staminate, or empty, or reduced to a mere stalk

Andropogon gerardii Vitman big bluestem

Symbol: ANGE

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

This plant grows in only in hot weather, 5-7 feet tall, turkey foot type seed head, matures seed in late August-September.

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada.

Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence Today: Dominate native grass in prairie states, one of the ‘four horsemen’. Grows in humid and semi arid regions. Occurring sporadically in WV. Wonderful plant, do we need more – but how?).

Andropogon virginicus L. var. virginicus broomsedge bluestem

Symbol:

ANVIV

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

(Occurrence today: It is widely and frequently occurring all across the humid, temperate part of the U.S. Its frequent occurrence in pastures and other treeless areas is usually due to the low phosphorous in the soil. Broomsedge tolerates this condition better than most herbaceous plants but it quickly gives way to others if phosphorous in applied. The county agent told my father “Mitchell, if you want to send those boys to college, you better apply some super phosphate to those pastures and get gid of that damn native grass. )

Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.
Chinese silvergrass

Symbol:

MISI

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1996. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee (19 October 1999). Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council

Saccharum ravennae (L.) L. ravennagrass

Plant Synonyms:

Erianthus ravennae (L.) Beauv.

Symbol:

SARA3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. divergens (Hack.) Gould little bluestem

Symbol:

SCLI11

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:

None available

(Occurrence today: This plant looks very much like broomsedge, but is a far better forage plant. It too is one of the four horsemen of the great plains. It occurs in small stands in isolated places here, is consumed by livestock, very difficult to reestablish in a humid region, thus not much around.)

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Indiangrass

Symbol: SONU2

Duration: : Perennial

U.S. : Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada.

Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: This is also on of the four horsemen of the Great Plains. Of those four Indiangrass was most likely the one that occupied the open savanna type areas in the Eastern forests when the first European settlers arrived. Even today, it is the native grass most widely found here that would have the capabilities of restricting trees and shrubs from overrunning the site. If one knows what to look for it is easily spotted in the late summer and early fall. Grows about 6 feet tall, with lots of leaves.)

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Johnsongrass

Symbol:

SOHA

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

CA:

johnsongrass

C list (noxious weeds)

CO:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

DE:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

ID:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

IL:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

IN:

Johnsongrass

Noxious weed

KS:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

MD:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

MO:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

NV:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

OH:

johnsongrass

Prohibited noxious weed

OR:

Johnsongrass

“B” designated weed

PA:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

SD:

johnsongrass

Regulated non-native plant species

UT:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

VA:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

WA:

johnsongrass

Class A noxious weed

WV:

johnsongrass

Noxious weed

(Occurrence today: This may be the worst crop field weed around today. It is resistant to many common herbicides used for controlling weeds in corn, produces long living rhizomes, and abundant seed which lives in the ground a long.)

Tribe: Paniceae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikelet 1-flowered, spikelets flattened from back; pedicels

jointed just below spikelet.

d Spikelets single

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. barnyardgrass

Symbol: ECCR

Duration: Annual

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information: Japanese millet , cockspur , watergrass
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

KY

Haragan, P.D. 1991. Weeds of Kentucky and adjacent states: A field guide. The University Press of Kentucky. Lexington, Kentucky. 278pp.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

WSWS

Whitson, T.D. (Ed.) et al. 1996. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 630pp.

(Occurrence now: On the one hand this is a common weed in row crops, easily controlled with herbicides, but is an excellent waterfoul food, frequently grown for a crop then flooded in the fall or winter for the birds.

Panicum anceps Michx. beaked panicgrass

Symbol:

PAAN

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now:

Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.) Gould deertongue

Symbol: DICL

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This and the plant above are similar and until recently were both in the Panicum genera. Deertongue, which is out of alphabetical order, is more robust, tolerates pH to 4.5, is commercially available, a great native plant.)

Panicum virgatum L. switchgrass

Symbol: PAVI2

Duration: Perennial.

U.S Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each invasive plant list, or click here for a composite list of Invasive Plant Species

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada.

Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence Today: Dominate native grass in prairie states, one of the ‘four horsemen’ of the region. Occurring sporadically in WV. May ‘invade’ freshwater wetlands. Lets talk ecotypes.).

Tribe: Oryzeae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes none; plants of wet places

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. rice cutgrass

Symbol: LEOR

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This plant grows in stream edges, has very rough edges, is widely distributed, and easy to find in stream edges. More open panicle than L. virginica

Leersia virginica Willd. whitegrass

Symbol: LEVI2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: Similar to above, grows more in wet wooded areas, and has tight panicle, more shade tolerant than L. oryzoides)

Tribe: Phalarideae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Spikelet 3-flowered, uppermost floret in each spikelet perfect, the

two lower staminate or sterile.

Phalaris arundinacea L. reed canarygrass

Symbol: PHAR3

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

reed canarygrass

Class C noxious weed

(Occurrence now: Very widely distributed, usually along streams because it grows well in moist sites. Big, course, vigorous plant with many current uses.)

Tribe: Chlorideae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, spike type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect

ones

f Spikelets in 1-sided spikes or sessile on opposite sides of a

zigzag rachis

g Spikelete 1-several-flowered, in 1-sided spikes

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. sideoats grama

Symbol: BOCU

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

(Occurrence today: Although this plant occurs in WV, it is not frequently seen. The grama grasses (sideoats, black, blue, etc.) are the backbone of the short grass prairie of the southern great plains (8 to 14″ rainfall). Even so, they are what range scientists call decreasers, meaning they disappears under heavy grazing, i.e. are not very aggressive. Sideoats is the most robust and common of the grama grasses, but requires the best site.)

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermudagrass

Symbol:

CYDA

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information: This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

CA:

bermudagrass

C list (noxious weeds)

UT

bermudagrass

Noxious weed

(Occurrence now: It is now in all states except the most northern. Once the worst weed in the cotton fields, known as wire grass, it is now widely used an a turf and forage plant. Many cultivars.)

Tribe: Hordeae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, spike type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect ones

f Spikelets in 1-sided spikes or sessile on opposite sides of a

zigzag rachis

g Spikelete 1-several-flowered, sessile on opposite sides

of zigzag axis

Elymus canadensis L. Canada wildrye

Symbol: ELCA4

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Elymus repens (L.) quackgrass (Previously known as Agropyron repens)

Symbol: ELRE4

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:

One or more synonyms of this plant are listed as noxious weeds by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by various common names in different places. Listed synonyms are italicized and indented below.

U.S. quackgrass

Restricted noxious weed

AZ:

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B.D. Jackson

quackgrass

B list (noxious weeds)

CA

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B.D. Jackson

quackgrass

Noxious weed

CO

Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B.D. Jackson

quackgrass

Noxious weed

HI

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Primary noxious weed

IOWA

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Noxious weed

KANSAS

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Secondary noxious weed

MN

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Injurious weed

NV

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

“B” designated weed

OR

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Noxious weed

WY

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.

Quackgrass

Noxious weed

(Occurrence Today: Before the use of herbicides this was the most invasive weed into cultivated fields in the humid, temperate part of the U.S. It is still in most unshaded waste places, pastures, gardens, etc. Even my father, a God fearing man, would comment after digging it out of the corn all day, “That’s one creation we could have done without”. What’s wrong with this statement? )

Elymus virginicus L. Virginia wildrye

Symbol:

ELVI3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: These two plants are shade tolerant, perennial grasses that are being used in restoration projects in recent years as a result of the ‘native’ interest. They are similar in appearance, with the Canada wildrye having a much longer (10 cm) seed head.)

Lolium perenne L. perennial ryegrass

Symbol: LOPE

Duration: Annual, Biennial ,Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: Very widely used introduced grass – not listed a an invasive species however, maybe due to its short life. The multiple duration’s above results from great variance in cold tolerance of the species and the cross pollination between it and the following grass.)

Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot Italian ryegrass

Symbol:

LOPEM2

Duration:

Annual , Biennial, Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot Italian ryegrass, annual ryegrass
Lolium multiflorum Lam. Italian ryegrass, annual ryegrass
This plant and one or more synonyms are listed as invasive weeds by the authoritative sources noted below. Synonyms are italicized and indented. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

CAEPPC

California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999. Exotic pest plant list (19 October 1999). California Exotic Pest Plant Council.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

WSWS

Whitson, T.D. (Ed.) et al. 1996. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 630pp.

(Occurrence now: Like the one above, extensively used for temporary revegetation because it grows fast and the seed is very cheap.)

Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire tall fescue (previously Festuca arundinacea)

Symbol: LOAR10

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
One or more synonyms of this plant are listed as invasive weeds by the authoritative sources noted below. These synonyms are italicized and indented. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

CEPPC

California Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1999.

(Occurrence today: Is one of the most frequently occurring grasses across to U.S, present in all states, widely planted today for lawns, restoration purposes, forage, etc., Is a moderately aggressive invader. Why it is so widely used?)

Secale cereale L. cereal rye

Symbol:

SECE

Duration:

Annual
Biennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by one or more common names in different places.

WA:

cereal rye

Class C noxious weed

(Occurrence today: This is the only common cereal included in this list. This is because it can be an invasive plant, creating a problem in fields of hybrid wheat or barley, which degrades the quality f the seed. Cereal rye is our best and most widely used winter cover crop, however. Oddly, it is not shown as occurring in WV.)

Tribe: Agrostideae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect

ones

f Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle

g Spiklets 1-flowered

Agrostis gigantea Roth redtop

Symbol: AGGI2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

(No information is provided in the PLANTS database about the invasive character of this plant, yet it occurs in all states except HI, and dominates many non shaded moist areas in the humid, temperate parts of the country. Although it spreads by rhizomes, t is not as aggressive as quackgrass. )

Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass

Symbol:

AGCA5

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

No information is provided in the PLANTS database about the invasive character of this plant. It occurs in about half of the states, is far less aggressive that A. gigantea. Used almost exclusively on golf courses.)

Agrostis stolonifera L. creeping bentgrass

Symbol: Invasive Plant Information:

Symbol: AGST2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

(Occurrence today: Not widely scattered, except along streams and other moist areas. Used on golf courses. Similar to Agrostis capillaris. How come this native is invasive ant the last two introduced ones are not?)

Aristida oligantha Michx. prairie threeawn

Symbol:

AROL

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

(Occurrence today: This is an perennial example of a large genera of grasses widely scattered in the U.S., called threeawn. This one is a perennial, occurring in the spring and early summer, and as with most threeawns, on dry, hot , sterile sites. )

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. var. canadensis
bluejoint

Symbol:

CACAC10

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: All states except humid southeast. Occurs only in very moist places. Nice plant, strongly rhizomatous, poor seed producer, of little significance.)

Phleum pratense L. timothy

Symbol:

PHPR3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

(Occurrence today: Timothy is another of the northern European species to come early on to Amarica. It is widely used in the northern parts of the temperate region. It seems odd to talk of it as a weed, since it is very non-aggressive.)

Tribe: Festuceae

a. Spiklets not imbedded in the joints of the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-mant-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect ones

f Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle

g Spikelets 2-many flowered

h Glumes lower than lower-most floret; awn, if present,

arising from or near the apex of the lemma

Bromus arvensis L. field brome

Symbol:

BRAR5

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

(Occurrence today: A vigorous winter annual, it was planted as a cover crop following corn and other row crops to provide winter cover. For this it was excellent, but appeared to have weedy characteristics, and is no longer used to any great extent.)

Bromus inermis Leyss. smooth brome

Symbol:

BRIN2

Duration

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native and Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

SEEPPC

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. 1996. Invasive exotic pest plants in Tennessee, 19 October 1999). Research Committee of the Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council.

WI

Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.

(Occurrence today: This is an interesting introduced forage grass. It is still used today for this purpose, and many cultivars exist of it. When it was planted on the deep, rich soils of the central prairie it exploded, went wild. Typically, as human kind overgrazed rangeland smooth brome and Kentucky bluegrass replaced the native species (the four horsemen), i.e. they were increasers. This is an example where the invader produced more products the land owner wanted than the natives – pounds of beef, as least under the excessive grazing. It also invaded the roadbanks, etc. providing excellent erosion control. Reestablishing native grasses in this environment, and keeping them there under grazing is a challenge. Is that good or bad?)

Bromus tectorum L. cheatgrass

Symbol:

BRTE

Duration:

Annual

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:
This plant is listed as a noxious weed by the USDA, and some states, and may be known by one or more common names in different places, such as downy brome, softchess.

(Occurrence now: All states – millions of acres in the Great Basin states of the west Rates up there with star thistle, and leafy spurge. Is not used by livestock and prohibits re-invasion of desirable grasses. It is common in WV, and can be found in early spring on dry, sun baked bare ground. It invaded the west because of ovegrazing.)

Dactylis glomerata L. orchardgrass

Symbol: DAGL

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

B&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

(Occurrence now: This is a valuable forage grass, distributed in all of the northern 2/3 of U.S. It is interesting to note that Cornell has put on the commercial marker several cultivars of orchardgrass, yet it is considered a weed by the same institution.

Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass

Symbol:

ERCU2

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This plant is used only for restoration projects. It can be seen on road bank projects within WV. It grows rapidly in the summer, has a strong seedling, and is used as a nurse crop for longer liver herbaceous species in the mix.)

Festuca rubra L. red fescue

Symbol: FERU2

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: Another introduced species primarily for turf use. Produces tough sod, good shade tolerance, widely used in the state.)

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. common reed

Symbol: PHAU7

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Noxious Weed Information:

One or more synonyms of this plant are listed as noxious weeds by the U. S. federal government or a state, and may be known by various common names in different places. Listed synonyms are italicized and indented below.

SC:

Common reed

Noxious weed

(Occurrence today: World wide, this plant ranks as one of our worst weeds. It occupies both salt and fresh water wetlands when given an opportunity. Considering its world wide distribution, it may be native to most if not all continents.)

Poa annua L. annual bluegrass

Symbol: POAN

Duration: Annual ,Biennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced,

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

N’EAST

Uva, R.H., J.C. Neal, & J.M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 397pp.

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

SWSS

Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

WSWS

Whitson, T.D. (Ed.) et al. 1996. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science in cooperation with Cooperative Extension Services, University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. 630pp.

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence today: This little winter annual seems insignificant, but becomes a pest in seed fields of Kentucky bluegrass. However, because it germinates frequently in the fall, starts growing very early in the spring (late winter here) it does protect some open crop fields from erosion.)

Poa compressa L. Canada bluegrass

Symbol: POCO

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above.

WI

Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.

(Occurrence today: The above information suggests this plant is introduced, from Canada I assume. Many of you did not know plants respected political boundaries. This plant seems at home all across the northern parts of the U.S. Similar in appearance to Kentucky Bluegrass, bur less robust, more prostrate, and initiates growth earlier in the spring. It to is a seed contamination problem in Kentucky blue fields.)

Poa pratensis L. Kentucky bluegrass

Symbol: POPR

Duration: Perennial

U.S. Nativity: Native and Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:
This plant is listed as an invasive weed by the authoritative sources noted below. This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each invasive plant list, or click here for a composite list of Invasive Plant Species

NB&GP

Stubbendieck, J., G.Y. Friisoe, & M.R. Bolick. 1994. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Lincoln, Nebraska. 589pp.

WI

Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence today: If we have a lawn we mostly likely have this plant. Moderately aggressive in most settings, very aggressive in others. Is this a good or bad thing? And is it really a native or not?)

Tridens flavus (L.) A.S. Hitchc. purpletop tridens

Symbol:

TRFL2

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Information:

(None provided by database. This plant can be observed on nearly every acre of pasture in August – September in Jefferson county, but it sure was not planted there. Is it invasive? By the way, it is a wonderful plant.)

Tribe: Aveneae (tall oatgrass, poverty grass,

a Spiklets not imbedded in the rachis, panicle type head

b Plants herbaceous, culms annual.

c Spikeets 1-many flowered, more or less flattend from the side; pedicels

jointed just above the glumes (except in a few genera, which have spikelets

flattened from the side)

d Glumes present

e Flowers 1-many-flowered, no imperfect flowers below the perfect

ones

f Spikelets on an open or contracted panicle

g Spikelets 2-many flowered

h Glumes as long as the lower most floret; awns, if present,

attached to the back of the lemma.

Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J.& K. Presl tall oatgrass

Symbol:

AREL3

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Introduced

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

No information is provided in the PLANTS database about the invasive character of this plant. It occurs in most states but is not aggressive. Has excellent forage qualities, but a low forage and sees producer.)

Aristida longispica Poir. slimspike threeawn

Symbol: ARLO2

Duration: Annual

U.S. Nativity: Native

Other characteristics:

Invasive Plant Information:

None provided.

(Occurrence today: This is an example of a large genera of grasses widely scattered in the U.S., called threeawn. This one is an annual, occurring in the spring, and as with most threeawns, on dry, hot , sterile sites. )

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes poverty oatgrass

Symbol:

DASP2

Duration:

Perennial

U.S. Nativity:

Native

Other characteristics:

(Occurrence now: This native is of little consequence, except it is just about everywhere. I occurs on low fertility, low moisture soils in much of WV.)

Category : local flora
2
May

The following list of resources has been compiled by EPNPS members. The descriptions have been written by individual members and in some cases reflect personal opinion or experience using the materials.

Gardening/Landscaping/Propagation

Title: Dirt: The Estatic Skin of the Earth
Author: William Bryant Logan
Publisher: Riverhead Books, 375 Hudson St., New York, NY 10014, 1995.
Everything you wanted to know about dirt in a series of essays, written in a kind of inspirational vein.

Title: Going Native Biodiversity in our own Backyards
Editor: Janet Marinelli
Publisher: Brooklyn Botanic Garden Publications, 1994.
Eleven articles from different parts of the county. Most articles have a landscape plan with selected plants of which many are shown in color photos.

Title: Noah’s Garden
Author: Sara Stein
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin, NY

Title: Native Plants Journal
Author: Published twice a year by the Forest Research Nursery, Department of Forest Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1137.
A forum for dispensing practical information about planting and growing native plants. Covers the whole US, but propagation information is often useful even if the plants are being grown elsewhere. Info at website: http://nativeplants.for.uidaho.edu

Title: The Natural Habitat Garden
Authors: Ken Druse with Margaret Roach,
Publisher: Clarkson Potter
Nice pictures of natives.

Title: Easy Care Native Plants
A guide to selecting and using American flowers, shrubs and trees in gardens
and landscapes.
Author: Patricia A. Taylor
Publisher: Henry Holt and Company, NY
Excellent for its purpose, though the author freely uses native plants from many regions in her New Jersey garden. Good basic information on over 500 plants, with author’s comments on use, landscape and design. Also, detailed descriptions of public gardens that feature native plantings. One chapter titled ‘Native Plants Today: a primer on their controversies and charms’ defines the debate nicely.

Title: Gardening with Native Wild Flowers
Authors: Samuel B. Jones, Jr. and Leonard E. Foote
Publisher: Timber Press, 1990.
Covers gardening with herbaceous plants native to eastern and midwestern North America. Has color pictures in middle portion of book. Has sections on developing a plan for a wild flower garden, preparation and management of the garden, propagation of perennial wild flowers, and descriptions of wild flowers for shade and sun.

Title: Gardening with Native Plants of the South
Authors: Sally Wasowski with Andy Wasowski
Publisher: Taylor Publishing Company, 1994.
Has plans for native gardens. Includes plant profiles of trees, shrubs, vines, groundcover, ferns woodland flowers, ornamental grasses and water plants. West Virginia included.

Title: The Wild Lawn Handbook
Alternatives to the Traditional Front Lawn
Author: Stevie Daniels
Native and nonnative alternatives to high-maintenance lawn grass. Color photos of 16 different “wild lawns.”

Title: Landscaping with Native Trees
Author: Guy Sternberg & Jim Wilson
Publisher: Chapters, Shelbourne, VT

Title: Creating Sanctuary
A new approach to gardening in the Washington Metropolitan area.
Author: Sherry Mitchell

Title: A Gardener’s Encyclopedia of Wild Flowers
An Organic Guide to Choosing and Growing over 150 Beautiful Wildflowers
Author: C. Colston Burrell
Publisher: Rodale Press
American Horticultural Society Book Award. Encyclopedia includes full page with color picture of each wildflower. Has some garden designs with plants used.

Title: Manual of Herbaceious Plants
Author: Steven Still
Publisher: Stipes Publishing Co.
Practical information for planting

Title: Manual of Woody Landscape Plants
Author: Michael Dirr
Publisher: Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign, Ill.
Practical information for planting

Title: The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation:
From seed to tissue culture
Author: Michael Dirr & Charles W. Heuster, Jr.
Publisher: Varsity Press, 1987
Very useful

Title: Pruning
Author: Christopher Brickel
Publisher: Simon & Schuster, 1988
Well illustrated

Title: Encyclopedia of Ferns
Author: David L. Jones
Publisher: Timber Press, Portland, OR, 1987.
Lots of detailed information on growing and propagating ferns, but covers the world and so is not the best guide to the native ferns of this area.

Title: Fern Growers Manual
A comprehensive guide for every gardener to every aspect of fern cultivation.
Author: Barbara Joe Hoshizaki
Publisher: Alfred A. Knopf

Field Guides/Identification

Trees/woody plants

Title: National Audubon Society Pocket Guide: Familiar Trees of North America, East
Editor: Ann H. Whitman
A handy guide that slips easily into a pocket. Covers 80 of the most common tree species in the East. Each entry includes a full-page close-in color photo of leaves, color swatch of the bark, and an illustration of the sillhouette. Text describes key characteristics, habitat and range.

Title: The Book of Trees
Author: William C. Grimm
A large book, not suited for field work, it features beautifully detailed descriptions and illustrations of major structural features of pines, spruces, elms, oaks, hickories, birches, and many more. Also contains keys.

Title: The Trees In My Forest
Author: Berndt Heinrich
Publisher: Harper Collins, 1997

Title: Master Tree Finder
Author: May Theilgaard Watts 1963
Title: Winter Tree Finder
Author: May T. and Tom Watts 1970
Publisher: Nature Study Guild.
Both of the above are good starting places for unknowns, easy to use keys, and very small and easy to carry.

Title: Woody Plants of Maryland
Author: Brown and Brown
Publisher: University of Maryland, 1972, 1992

Title: Native Shrubs and Woody Vines of the Southeast
Landscaping Uses and Identification
Authors: Leonard E. Foote and Samuel B. Jones, Jr.
Publisher: Timber Press, 1989, 199 pages, paperback.
Covers native shrubs and woody vines of Southeast including West Virginia. List keys to families of shrubs. Color pictures grouped together.

Wildflowers

Title: Wildflowers of North Carolina
Author: William Justice & C. Ritchie Bell
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1968
Color photos. Easy to use

Title: The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers
Eastern Region

Author: William A. Nierling & Nancy C. Olmstead
Publisher: Knopf, NY

Title: A Field Guide to Wildflowers Northeastern and North Central North America

Authors: Roger Tory Peterson and Margaret McKenny
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin, 1968, 1996
Field guide grouped by color and plant characteristics. 1,293 species in 84 families are described and illustrated.

Title: Southeastern Wildflowers
Author: Jan W. Midgley
Publisher: Crane Hill Publishers
Includes information about seed colection, plant propagation, plant identification, butterfly attraction, botanical terms, and gardening resources. Color pictures of plants. Map does not include West Virginia.

Title: Wildflowers of the Appalachian Trail
Author: Leonard M. Adkins,
Publisher: Menasha Ridge Press
Full page color picture of each plant with description, including the story behind its name, on facing page. Winner of the National Outdoor Book Award..

Title: Wildflowers and Winter Weeds
Author: Lauren Brown
Guide offers over 135 common species of wildflowers and weeds in Northeast and their identification in winter months. Each plant is accompanied by full-page illustration and a description of key characteristics. Also, a step-by-step key to plant indentifications and glosary of common plant parts and botanical terms.

Title: A Guide To Wildflowers in Winter
Author: Carol Levine
Publisher: Yale University Press

Entries on 391 species of herbaceous plants, each illustrated.

Title: Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide
Author: Lawrence Newcomb
Identification guide based on structural features, including arrangement flowers, and leaf arrangement and shape. Color and b/w illustrations

Combos

Title: Flora of West Virginia, second edition
Authors: P.D. Strausbaugh and Earl L. Core
Publisher: Seneca Books, Morgantown, WV
The vascular plants of WV, with descriptions, illustrations, geographical data and other information for 2,200 species growing without cultivation in the state.

Title: The Illustrated Book of Wildflowers and Shrubs,
The Comrehensive Field Guide to More Than 1.300 Plants of Eastern North
America

Author: William Carey Grimm
Publisher: Stackpole Books
Black and white drawings of many wildflowers and shrubs for use in identification.

Title: The Book of Swamp and Bog

Trees, Shrubs, and Wildflowers of Eastern Freshwater Wetlands
Author: John Eastman
Detailed descriptions and illustrations of most, but not all of the 80 wetland plants covered. Descriptions include appearance in all seasons, why a particular plant prefers certain habitats, how they grow, and the animals/insects which depend on it for food and shelter.

Title: Eastern Forests
Author: John Kricher and Gordon Morrison
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin
A field guide to birds, mammals, trees, flowers, and more.

Title: Flowering Plants of the World
Author: V.H. Heywood, editor
Publisher: Croom Helm
Fascinating account of plants worldwide. Interesting to know

Title: Wildflowers in Color
Author: Arthur Stupka
Publisher: First HarperPerennial edition, 1994
A field guide to more than 250 wildflowers of eastern North America. Good basic descriptions. Flowers and leaves photographed in color. Indexed alphabetically and by flower color.

Ferns

Title: A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-allies of the United States and Canada
Author: David B. Lellinger
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press 1985.
Thorough description and range information, and color plates of all the ferns, lycopodiums and selaginellas.

Title: A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-allies of the United States and Canada
Author: David B. Lellinger
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Press 1985.
Thorough description and range information, and color plates of all the ferns, lycopodiums and selaginellas.

Other

Title: The Butterflies of West Virginia and Their Caterpillars
Author: Thomas J. Allen
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
Describes 128 species of butterflies found in the state, along with their caterpillars and pupae. Each species account provides information on distribution, habitat, life history, nectar sources, and larval host plants. Color illustrations as well as detailed drawings and maps. Includes chapters on studying butterflies and butterfly gardening.

Title: Amphibians & Reptiles in West Virginia
Author: N. Bayard Green & Thomas Pauley
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press, in cooperation with the WV Dept. of Natural Resources, Nongame Wildlife Program
Available information on the distribution, habitat, and seasonal activities of the 86 species and subspecies of amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia.

Pests/Weeds/Disease

Title: The Encyclopedia of Natural Insect & Disease Control
Editor: Roger B. Yepsen, Jr.

Title: Deer Proofing Your Yard and Garden
Author: Rhonda Massingham Hart
Publisher: Storey Communications, Inc., Pownal, VT
Discussion of life cycle and habits. Deer deterrent techniques. List of deer resistant plants. Quite comprehensive

Title: The Gardener’s Weed Book
Author: Barbara Pleasant
Identifies more than 70 common garden weeds with an emphasis on natural controls.

Biology/Botony/Geology

Title: Insects and Flowers: The Biology of a Partnership
Author: Friedrich G. Barth
Publisher: Princeton University Press 1991.
An excellent introduction to the coevolution of insects and flowers, with interesting chapters on insect vision and sense of smell, and incredible photos.

Title: The Forgotten Pollinators
Author: Stephen L. Buchmann and Gary Paul Nabhan
Publisher: Island Press/Shearwater Books, Washington, DC 1996. A very readable description of plant and insect interactions from many areas, and also a great description of the relationship of wild habitats to farming communities. One out of every three mouthfuls of food you eat depends on pollinators!

Title: Arnoldia
Author: Arnold Arboretum
Publisher: Harvard University
Quarterly publication offering in-depth discussion of plants and botany

Title: Plant Classification
Author: Lyman Benson
Publisher: D.C. Heath & Company
A classic, possibly out of print. Available at various used book store. See: http://bibliofind.com for sources.

Title: The Private Life of Plants
Author: David Attenborough
Companion to the acclaimed PBS series. Covers plants all over the world. How plants fight, avoid, or exploit predators or neighbors and struggle to find food, increase their territory, and reproduce. Nontechnical.

Title: The Visual Dictionary of Plants
Eyewitness Visual Dictionaries Series
Publisher: Dorling Kindersley, Inc. 1992 (www.dk.com).
A ‘kids book’ with fantastic pictures and very clear labels. If you have been avoiding botany because it seems too complicated, try this book.

Title: After the Ice Age: the Return of Life to Glaciated North America
Author: E. C. Pielou
Publisher: University of Chicago Press 1991, paperback edition 1992.
A very interesting explanation of our planets cycles and land masses explaining why there are ice ages, and then a look at how the North America’s plant and animal communties changed as the ice receeded. Really gives you some perspective on climate and vegetation changes.

Nature/Naturalists/Outdoors

Title: Curious Naturalists
Author: Niko Tinbergen
Publisher: The American Museum of Natural History and Anchor Books, 1969.
A classic with chapters on various biological and ecological studies, especially of birds and insects; not technical, a good read.

Title: The Appalachian Trail: A Visitor’s Companion
Author: Leonard Adkins
Publisher: Menasha Ridge Press, Birmingham, AL
A naturalist’s guide to the Appalachian Trail. Includes history of the trail and detailed information on the geology, trees, flowers, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of the Appalachian Mountains.

Title: Monongahela National Forest Hiking Guide
Author: Allen de Hart and Bruce Sundquist
Publisher: West Virginia Highlands Conservancy/Menasha Ridge Press
More than 200 hiking trails covering 700 miles. Describes trail scenery, difficulty, condition,distance, elevation, access points, streams, and skiing potential. Includes four wilderness areas with a total of 77,965 acres and 21,300 acres of semi-wilderness zones.

Title: Day and Overnight Hikes in West Virginia’s Monongahela National Forest
Author: Johnny Molly
Publisher: Menasha Ridge Press
Directions to more than 30 day hikes and 10 overnight hikes in the MNF.

Title: Journey Into Summer
Author: Edwin Way Teale
Publisher: Dodd, Mead & Co.
Nature exploration along 19,000 miles, from northern New England, along the shore of the Great Lakes, south through the corn country and into the high Rocky Mountains.

Title: Wandering Through Winter
Author: Edwin Way Teale
Publisher: Dodd, Mead & Co.
A 20,000 mile journey through North American Winter.

Title: Naturalist
Author: Edward O. Wilson
Publisher: Island Press/Shearwater Books
The author is winner of two Pulitzer prizes and a champion of biodiversity. Here, he describes his growth as a scientist and the evolution of the science he has helped define.

Category : resources
2
May

Information about native and invasive plants, gardening, landscaping, nature, and related topics:

Category : resources